Hughes surveyed six women in Ordsall, a part of Salford said to be characterizedocial malaise".
"My observations of these women," Hughes wrote, "showed me that, contrary to some theories, they use a strong vernacular style . . . These women are proud of their swearing: 'We've taught men to swear, foreigners what's come in the pub.' Yet they do differentiate between using swearwords in general conversation and using them with venom and/or as an insult."
That traditional reality of womanly swearing, if it is to survive, must deal with challenges. Fifteen years after the study was published, a corrupting influence came to town. A home insurance firm announced that Ordsall had attained a place on the company's young affluent professionals index. Ordsall, they said, had become a "property hotspot" attracting wealthy young professionals.