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 IBM and the Final Solution

||| EDWIN BLACK, VILLAGE VOICE - When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, most of the world saw a menace to humanity. But IBM saw Nazi Germany as a lucrative trading partner. Its president, Thomas J. Watson, engineered a strategic business alliance between IBM and the Reich, beginning in the first days of the Hitler regime and continuing right through World War II. This alliance catapulted Nazi Germany to become IBM's most important customer outside the U.S. IBM and the Nazis jointly designed, and IBM exclusively produced, technological solutions that enabled Hitler to accelerate and in many ways automate key aspects of his persecution of Jews, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and others the Nazis considered enemies. Custom-designed, IBM-produced punch cards, sorted by IBM machines leased to the Nazis, helped organize and manage the initial identification and social expulsion of Jews and others, the confiscation of their property, their ghettoization, their deportation, and, ultimately, even their extermination. Recently discovered Nazi documents and Polish eyewitness testimony make clear that IBM's alliance with the Third Reich went far beyond its German subsidiary. A key factor in the Holocaust in Poland was IBM technology provided directly through a special wartime Polish subsidiary reporting to IBM New York, mainly to its headquarters at 590 Madison Avenue. And that's how the trains to Auschwitz ran on time.

Thousands of IBM documents reviewed for the first edition of my book 'IBM and the Holocaust,' published early last year and focused mainly on IBM's German subsidiary, revealed vigorous efforts to preserve IBM's monopoly in the Nazi market and increase contracts to meet wartime sales quotas. Since then, continued research and interviews have uncovered details, described here for the first time, of IBM's work for the Nazis in Poland through the separate subsidiary and of the Polish subsidiary's direct contact with IBM officials on Madison Avenue.


VILLAGE VOICE - The infamous Auschwitz tattoo began as an IBM number. And now it's been revealed that IBM machines were actually based at the infamous concentration-camp complex. IBM's extensive technological support for Hitler's conquest of Europe and genocide against the Jews was extensively documented in my book IBM and the Holocaust, published in February 2001. Last March, the Voice broke exclusive new details of a special wartime subsidiary set up in Poland by IBM's New York headquarters, shortly after Hitler's 1939 invasion, to help Germany automate the rape of Poland.

The new revelation of IBM technology in the Auschwitz area constitutes a final link in the chain of documentation surrounding Big Blue's vast enterprise in Nazi-occupied Poland, supervised at first directly from its New York headquarters, and later through its Geneva office. "This latest disclosure removes any pretext of deniability and completes the puzzle that has been put together about IBM in Poland," says Malcolm Hoenlein, executive vice chairman of the New York-based Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations. "The picture that emerges is most disturbing."

IBM spokesman Carol Makovich didn't respond to repeated telephone calls. In the past, when asked about IBM's Polish subsidiary's involvement with the Nazis, Makovich has said, "IBM does not have much information about this period." When a Reuters reporter asked about Poland, Makovich said, "We are a technology company, we are not historians."

EDWIN BLACK, SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE - When Adolf Hitler came to power, many saw a menace to humanity. But IBM treated Nazi Germany as a lucrative trading partner. Quickly, its president, Thomas J. Watson, engineered a strategic business alliance between IBM and the Third Reich, beginning in the first days of the Hitler regime and continuing right through World War II. This alliance instantly catapulted Nazi Germany into being IBM's most important customer outside the United States. As part of that strategic alliance, IBM and the Nazis jointly designed, and IBM exclusively produced, technologic solutions that enabled Hitler to accelerate and automate key aspects of his persecution of the Jews from the initial identification and social expulsion, to the confiscation and ghettoization, to the deportation and ultimate extermination.

Nazi documents contained in the U.S. National Archives and Polish eyewitness testimony make clear that IBM's alliance with the Third Reich went far beyond its German subsidiary. During the rape of Poland and the Polish Holocaust, which killed millions and plundered a nation, IBM technology was a key factor. The company's custom-tailored technology was provided directly through a new special wartime Polish subsidiary reporting to IBM New York. And that's how the trains to Auschwitz ran on time.

In the early 1930s, Watson tightly managed his lucrative German subsidiary, Dehomag. He traveled to Berlin at least twice annually from 1933 until 1939 to personally supervise Dehomag. IBM's managers in Berlin personally updated Watson constantly, generally signing their reports, "Awaiting your further instructions." No machines were sold -- only leased. IBM was the sole source of all punch cards and spare parts. It serviced the machines on site either directly or through its authorized dealer network or field trainees. There were no universal punch cards. Each series of cards was custom- designed by IBM engineers to capture information going in and to tabulate information the Nazis wanted to extract.

For example, one series of punch cards was designed to record religion, national origin and mother tongue. By making special columns and rows showing "Jew, Polish language, Polish nationality, the fur trade (as an occupation), and then "Berlin," Nazis could quickly cross-tabulate exactly how many Berlin furriers were Jews of Polish extraction. Railroad cars, which could take two weeks to locate and route, could be swiftly dispatched in just 48 hours by means of a vast network of punch card machines. Indeed, IBM services coursed through the entire German infrastructure in Europe.

The wrecking of Russia


[Apparently it wasn't' just Russia and eastern Europe that paid the price of Jeffrey Sachs' "shock therapy" economics. Harvard was also left with a few problems]

HARVARD MAGAZINE - When the Harvard Institute for International Development was disbanded in 2000, it meant the disappearance of the University's largest entity devoted to international work. Multiple torpedoes sank HIID, including structural problems, a 1997 scandal in Russia over conflict-of-interest charges, and financial deficits in its final two years. In 1999, HIID's director since 1995, Jeffrey Sachs, then Stone professor of international trade, resigned as HIID director to head the newly-created Center for International Development. The CID emphasizes academic research, rather than consulting work, in developing countries. . . . The CID's seed money came from the HIID endowment, with authorized transfers of up to $13 million (half the value of the HIID endowment at the end of 1998).

But this March, Sachs abruptly resigned from Harvard to become director of Columbia University's Earth Institute. Now much of the international development work at Harvard reverts to problematic status, with the future of the CID uncertain and a great deal of red ink to clean up. The CID had a shortfall of a million dollars on its 2002 fiscal year budget of $6.4 million, and in fiscal 2003, its deficit is expected to be $2 million. By the end of the 2003 fiscal year, it will be necessary to decapitalize $3 million from the $5 million in unrestricted endowment money that HIID transferred to the CID.

Work at the CID is grinding to a halt. As of May, the Center had 18 active projects; Sachs was the principal investigator for 13 of them. Sachs planned to take six of these research projects (including three of the Center's five most generously funded studies) with him to Columbia, and leave seven at Harvard. But of those seven, three of the sponsors - including foundations, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations - withdrew their funding when they learned of Sachs's unexpected departure. . .

In the first year Sachs raised $1 million in gift money, although the CID endowment remained unchanged. The gift money, and more, has been spent as up to 60 people worked on CID research, their salaries easily outpacing the center's revenue sources. Last fall and winter Sachs negotiated with President Lawrence H. Summers for an increase in the University's support for CID to $2 million per year. Summers was willing to consider funding the center at some level, but wanted management changes, especially improved fiscal controls. . . The dialogue between Sachs and Summers was still in process when Sachs announced his resignation.

[A few earlier items on Sachs]

JOHN SPRITZLER - Sachs is the director of the Center for International Development and professor of international trade at Harvard University. In 1990 Sachs was an economic advisor to the government of Poland when he revealed his plans for "helping" the working class, writing, "Western observers should not over-dramatize lay-offs and bankruptcies. Poland, like the rest of Eastern Europe, now has too little unemployment, not too much."

Sachs served as the chief economic advisor to Russia's President Boris Yeltsin from 1991 to 1994, where he advocated "shock therapy" to create market capitalism in Russia. Capitalism in Russia meant mines and factories becoming the personal property of former high ranking communists and other businessmen, while employees went unpaid and starvation conditions emerged for the first time since World War II. An article in Harvard Magazine 1996 reported that "Russians are dying at an unprecedented rate. Between 1990 and 1994 the country's death rate increased by 40 percent, from 11.2 to 15.7 deaths per 1,000 people. Male life expectancy fell from 63.8 years to 57.7 years, and female life expectancy from 74.3 to 71.3 years. According to Elizabeth Brainerd, a graduate student in economics, 'Declines in life expectancy of this magnitude in only four years are unparalleled in the twentieth century among countries at peace and in the absence of major famines or epidemics.'"

LEFT BUSINESS OBSERVER - Sachs, known as the intellectual father of "shock therapy" for the former socialist world, is getting a lot of press for his criticisms of the IMF. Of course he's right that the Fund's strategy has been a disaster, and that no recovery in Russia will be possible without massive debt relief. But Sachs, director of the HIID, is himself deeply implicated in the disaster. With his former Harvard colleague Larry Summers at Clinton's Treasury Department, the U.S. government deputized HIID to run its "aid" program in Moscow, a program that amounted to greasing the theft of state enterprises by the present gang of oligarchs who run Russia.

PROGRESSIVE REVIEW - As far as Harvard goes, Jonathan Rowe, in a Washington Monthly article on Poland put it nicely: "Though any number of Western advisers have had a hand in this program, the one who has gotten the most attention is Jeffrey Sachs, the globe-trotting whiz kid from Harvard. Sachs preaches a kind of macro-economic machismo. Raise prices, hike interest rates, welcome bankruptcies and unemployment as evidence that the fat of the communist years is sweating off the body economic. 'Western observers should not over-dramatize layoffs and bankruptcies,' Sachs wrote in The Economist. 'Poland, like the rest of Eastern Europe, now has too little unemployment, not too much."

The media-spook connection

PROGRESSIVE REVIEW - In a move roughly akin to the ACLU hiring a CIA director for its president, National Public Radio has named the czar of American broadcast agitprop as its CEO. Kevin Klose has been director of the US International Broadcasting Bureau, which runs or coordinates all major American broadcast propaganda including the Voice of America and Radio Marti. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Radio Free Asia operate under the oversight of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, the same body that supervises IBB. Kevin Klose was president of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty from 1992 to 1997. Prior to that he worked for many years for the Washington Post. The choice raises new questions about the independence from government influence of the public radio network, which is already tied by purse-strings to Washington and has shown considerable deference to the White House in its coverage of the Clinton scandals. This is not the first time America media and propaganda have been seamlessly joined. In 1976, the president of the CIA-connected Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty was former CBS president Sig Mickelson. Ironically, one of the few journalists who raised questions about the relationship of media and the CIA -- to the detriment of his career at CBS -- was Daniel Schorr, now at NPR. Carl Bernstein, in a contemporary article in Rolling Stone, estimated that 400 American journalists had been tied to the CIA at one point or another, including such well known media figures as the Alsop brothers, C.L. Sulzberger of the New York Times, and Philip Graham of the Washington Post. Later the New York Times reported that the CIA had owned or subsidized more than 50 newspapers, news services, radio stations, and periodicals, mostly overseas. And, says NameBase Newslines, at least 22 American news organizations employed CIA assets, and "nearly a dozen American publishing houses printed some of the more than 1,000 books that had been produced or subsidized by the CIA. When asked in a 1976 interview whether the CIA had ever told its media agents what to write, William Colby replied, 'Oh, sure, all the time.'" With the bad press, American intelligence began becoming more subtle. As one CIA asset, Gloria Steinem said, "The CIA's big mistake was not supplanting itself with private funds fast enough." One of the results of an increasing sophistication was the creation in 1973 of a Board for International Broadcasting to obscure any CIA control of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. But all this is history and largely forgotten even in media circles. Thus, it is not suprising that there have been signs the Washington inner party is feeling its oats again. In 1996, the Council on Foreign Relations suggested that the CIA be allowed once more to use journalists and clergy as cover for its operations. As NameBase Newslines points out, "For 70 years, [the CFR has] rarely recommended anything that has not become policy." In such an environment, for NPR to hire the head of national broadcast agitpunkt seems more than a little risky.

Experimentation by the government

BOISE WEEKLY: Since early June [2001], newspapers in Australia and Great Britain have published articles about experiments conducted in the 1950s and 1960s by U.S. scientists on the bodies of deceased and stillborn babies. Documents declassified by the U.S. Department of Energy show that scientists from the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority worked with their American counterparts to take the bodies of 6,000 infants from hospitals in Australia, Great Britain, Canada, Hong Kong, South America and the U.S., then ship them to the United States for the nuclear experiments-without permission from the parents. It was called Project Sunshine. Sunshine began in 1955 at the University of Chicago when Willard Libby, later a Nobel Prize laureate for his research into carbon dating, instructed colleagues to skirt the law in their search for bodies. "Human samples are of prime importance, and if anybody knows how to do a good job of body-snatching, they will really be serving their country," Libby is quoted as saying. The reasoning: Nuclear tests released great amounts of Strontium 90 into the atmosphere. Libby and others connected with the American defense industry wanted to know how much radiation was entering the food supply. The bodies and body parts were cremated and the ashes tested with a sophisticated Geiger counter. MORE

Pearl Harbor

The Smoking Gun gathered a collection of U.S. government records documenting the 1941 attack by the Japanese. The documents, which TSG obtained from the National Archives and the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, The collection begins with a February 1941 note about a rumored Pearl Harbor attack, a warning dismissed as unfounded by Navy officials. We've also included a December 7, 1941 White House memo to President Roosevelt describing that morning's attack as well as a draft of the president's famous remarks to Congress (which includes FDR's handwritten revisions). You'll also find eyewitness accounts of the bombing of the USS Arizona (where 1,177 crewmen perished) and Navy "after-action" reports prepared by ship commanders, documents that offer a harrowing tale of bombs and body counts.

JOHN MCCASLIN, WASHINGTON TIMES: Not only has new evidence surrounding the attack on Pearl Harbor been uncovered, but historian and author Daryl S. Borgquist, a Justice Department official in Washington, believes the U.S. Navy and others are keeping crucial documents "under wraps." Inside the Beltway has learned that, in a lengthy paper being presented at a World War II conference at New York´s Siena College, Mr. Borgquist will offer new findings about Pearl Harbor. He´ll say the verdict on Pearl Harbor was reached too soon (upon conclusion of the 1940s investigations), well before crucial documents were declassified and other materials uncovered. Of note, Mr. Borgquist draws attention to a "major historical error" based on the typed text of the first draft of President Franklin D. Roosevelt´s "Day of Infamy" speech. Mr. Borgquist says the text was drafted by a State Department team led by former Assistant Secretary of State Adolph Berle between 8:30 p.m. and 12:30 a.m. -- after the first 13 parts of the 14-part Japanese reply to the American ultimatum had been intercepted, decoded, and delivered on Saturday night, Dec. 6, 1941. The attack came on Dec. 7.

That supports Mr. Borgquist´s earlier argument, published in 1999 by Naval History Magazine, that the attack on Pearl Harbor was no surprise at all. He wrote that Helen E. Hamman, the daughter of Don C. Smith, who directed the War Service for the Red Cross before World War II, wrote a letter to President Clinton revealing a conversation she had with her dad: "Shortly before the attack in 1941, President Roosevelt called him to the White House for a meeting concerning a top-secret matter. At this meeting, the president advised my father that his intelligence staff had informed him of a pending attack on Pearl Harbor, by the Japanese. He anticipated many casualties and much loss; he instructed my father to send workers and supplies to a holding area. When he protested to the president, President Roosevelt told him that the American people would never agree to enter the war in Europe unless they were attack[ed] within their own borders. . . . He followed the orders of his president and spent many years contemplating this action, which he considered ethically and morally wrong."


PEARL HARBOR PRIMARY SOURCES: With the bombing of Pearl Harbor now the subject of the summer's most hyped movie, the Smoking Gun has gathered a collection of U.S. government records documenting the 1941 attack by the Japanese. The documents, which TSG obtained from the National Archives and the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, The collection begins with a February 1941 note about a rumored Pearl Harbor attack, a warning dismissed as unfounded by Navy officials. We've also included a December 7, 1941 White House memo to President Roosevelt describing that morning's attack as well as a draft of the president's famous remarks to Congress (which includes FDR's handwritten revisions). You'll also find eyewitness accounts of the bombing of the USS Arizona (where 1,177 crewmen perished) and Navy "after-action" reports prepared by ship commanders, documents that offer a harrowing tale of bombs and body counts.




REUTERS: Walt Disney Co. is hoping that when Japanese remember the movie "Pearl Harbor," they will recall a heartwarming love story -- and not all that nasty stuff about how Japan drew the United States into war. Consideration of the huge Japanese market came into play even while the movie was being made, and, additionally, the version sent to Japan will have "some very minor changes," said Mark Zoradi, president of Buena Vista International, or BVI, the Disney subsidiary that will distribute the film outside the United States. One of the changes is a dogfight scene in which a character played by one of the stars calls the Japanese pilots "Japs," instead of "Jap suckers" as in the U.S. version . . . Critics have said that in its eagerness not to offend Japan, the world's second-largest movie market, Disney almost completely ignored Japan's aggression in Asia and took the line espoused by many Japanese that they were compelled to attack Pearl Harbor because of a U.S. oil embargo . . . Hideo Suzuki, in charge of marketing the movie in Japan, said "Pearl Harbor" had all the elements to make it big in the country: a compelling human drama, touching love story, big stars, big action and a pair of box office champions in producer Jerry Bruckheimer and director Bay. "We are marketing the movie without thinking of it as a war movie," he said, adding that one of the keys would be in how the filmmakers portrayed the Japanese. "If the movie portrays Japan in too harsh of a light, then it will not be a hit here." MORE

ROWAN SCARBOROUGH, WASHINGTON TIMES: In this politically correct era, with Japan now one of the United States´ strongest allies, the ['Pearl Harbor'] script focuses on the combatants´ heroism and a love story about a Navy nurse and her two Army Air Corps suitors. "The filmmakers made a conscious decision to keep it very neutral," said Navy Lt. Melissa Schuermann, the Pentagon's "Pearl Harbor" project officer. "That was their choice, although we were very sensitive to Japan." Lt. Schuermann said there were even diplomatic overtures to Japan to make sure Tokyo did not interpret the project as Japan-bashing. "[The film producers] were very center-of-the-road here," she said. "They weren't trying to do it either side." MORE

NICOLE LAMPERT, SUN, ENGLAND: Blockbuster war movie Pearl Harbor is to be cut for Japanese audiences - to keep the old enemy happy. The German version of the most expensive film ever is also being trimmed. Producers are ditching a closing speech by Brit Kate Beckinsale, 27, telling how the US bounced back from the cowardly Japanese raid on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor to win the war. The decision came after Disney chiefs canvassed people worldwide to see if anyone would be offended. A source said: "We've tried very hard not to portray the Japanese in a very bad light. "They are a huge market and accounted for 20 per cent of profits for Titanic. The film barely refers to the Germans but we have cut the speech for them, too. "It won't make a big difference, most people know who won the war." The ending is not the only change for Japan and Germany. Trailers will focus on romance rather than the amazing battle scenes. But the conciliatory gesture may not convince the old foes. The source added: "Many Japanese fear the film will be seen as a historical document with them as the baddies."


Bob Kerrey in Vietnam

WORLDWIDE SOCIALIST WEB: John Kerry elaborated, in one television appearance, on the thesis that soldiers should not be held responsible for actions that were in accordance with the policies of the US government. The raid on Thanh Phong was part of Operation Phoenix, he said, and "the Phoenix program was an assassination program run by the United States of America." . . . "Journalist Neil Sheehan recently recalled that in 1966, three years prior to the events in Thanh Phong and My Lai, he personally witnessed an American operation in which US troops wiped out five fishing villages, killing as many as 600 Vietnamese civilians. The raids "seemed unnecessarily brutal," but "it did not occur to me that I had discovered a possible war crime... I had never read the laws governing the conduct of war, though I had watched the war for three years in Vietnam and written about it for five ... The Army field manual says it is illegal to attack hospitals. We routinely bombed and shelled them ... looking back, one realizes the war crimes issue was always present."

WORLDWIDE SOCIALIST WEB: Students at the New School University in New York City are demanding the resignation of the newly installed president of the college, former US Senator Robert Kerrey, over his role in a wartime atrocity in Vietnam. A meeting of the Graduate Faculty Student Union May 10 voted by a nearly 2-1 margin to call for Kerrey's resignation. A second resolution urging a congressional investigation into the massacre of 21 women, children and old men in 1969 passed overwhelmingly. This action came in defiance of the defense of Kerrey offered by the university's board of directors, most of the media, and an array of senators and other political figures, especially in the Democratic Party.

Father of the New World Order
Frederick Winslow Taylor

The multinational sweatshop is the most recent variation on one of the most important and little discussed themes of the 20th century: the human as a machine, the result of a culture of modernity that Erich Fromm said was "attracted to all that is mechanical and inclined against all that is alive."

One of the main intellectual spirits behind this was Frederick Winslow Taylor, who sought to improve production through "scientific management" of workers, including time and motion studies as well as performance-based pay. Taylor was actually trying to correct some of the evils of early sweatshops including poor working conditions. Yet it was not long before Taylor's theories were transformed into manuals that stated, for example, that a secretary should be able to open and close a file drawer exactly 25 times a minute and open a folder in .04 minutes.

Taylor not only had a huge impact on American industrialists such as Henry Ford, but he was part of the inspiration for the Harvard Business School and its case study approach. Peter Drucker ranks Taylor with Darwin and Freud as the top thinkers of modernity. Ford he dismisses as just someone who knew how to use Taylor's principles.

Not long after this death in 1915, Taylor's ideas found their way to Nazi Germany. The concentration camp has been described as an extreme example of Taylorism at work. Richard Rubenstein, writing in "The Cunning of History," notes that "I.G. Farben's decision to locate at Auschwitz was based upon the very same criteria by which contemporary multinational corporations relocate their plants in utter indifference to the social consequences of such moves." Among those enthralled with Taylorism was Albert Speer. John Ralston Saul credits the efficiency expert's ideas with helping Germany hold out against superior Allied forces later in the war.

But Taylor had other fans as well, including Lenin, who learned about Taylorism while in exile. He returned to Russia determined to "Taylorize Communism." Saul writes: "The First Five Year Plan was written largely by American Taylorists and directly or indirectly they built some two-thirds of Soviet industry. The collapse of the Soviet Union was thus in many ways the collapse of Scientific Management."

But the ironies continued: "The Russian government immediately hired a Harvard professor of economics, Dr. Jefrey Sachs, to help them out of the crisis. His methods - filled with complete abstract systems - were strangely reminiscent of Taylor's . . . These brilliant financial and structural reforms lacked only one element: a recognition that several hundred million people live in Russia, that they must east every day. Or at least every second day."

Jim Jones & Jonestown


2007 - This fall will be the 30th anniversary of the mass murders and suicides at Jonestown, Guyana. We use the term "murders and suicides" because we will never know how many of the 900 who died did so of their own volition and how many - particularly the nearly 300 children - died at someone else's hand.

We have just come across one of the most of remarkable audio tapes we have ever heard, recording the last minutes at Jonestown. What comes through is a sickening normalcy of pending disaster during which Jones never retreats from deluding his flock.

Why does it matter? Simply because it was the most tragic example of the consequences of Americans' repeated infatuation with faith over reality, an infatuation that only traps the uninformed but, as can be seen below, the supposedly enlightened in the media and politics. And it would seem that we haven't learn much from Jonestown in the 30 years that followed it.

The tape is quite lengthy but it is well worth listening to in full. But first read some of the background below.


WIKIPEDIA - Jonestown was the short-lived settlement made in northwestern Guyana by the Peoples Temple, a cult from California. Jonestown became lastingly and internationally notorious in 1978, when nearly its whole population died in a mass murder-suicide orchestrated by their leader, Jim Jones. The name of the settlement thus became, also, a term for that incident. The site is now an abandoned ruin. . . Jonestown's population was about one thousand, once it was fully established and the bulk of Jones' followers had moved to it, but most of them lived there for under a year.

In November of 1978, United States Congressman Leo Ryan, accompanied by reporters and a delegation of concerned relatives of Peoples Temple members, visited Jonestown to investigate allegations of abuses there. The visit ended in the murders of Ryan and four others by members of the Peoples Temple, shot at the Port Kaituma airstrip as they were about to fly out. That evening, November 18, Jones led his followers in their mass murder-suicide. Somewhat over nine hundred men, women and children perished, Jones among them. . .

While in San Francisco, Jones changed his political image from anti-communist to socialist, vocally supported prominent political candidates, was appointed to city commissions and made grants to local newspapers with the stated goal of supporting the First Amendment. Partly inspired by the eccentric preacher Father Divine, he began charity efforts with the goal of recruiting the poor.

After several scandals and investigation for tax evasion[6] in San Francisco, Jones began planning a relocation of the Temple. According to the American Journal of Economics & Sociology, Jones considered locations in California and Brazil before settling on Guyana. . .

Many of the Peoples Temple members believed that Guyana would be, as Jones promised, a paradise. Work was performed six days a week, from seven in the morning to six in the evening, with temperatures that often reached over 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius), in Guyana's equatorial climate.

According to some, meals for the members consisted of nothing more than rice and beans while Jones dined on eggs, meat, fruit, salads, and soft drinks from a private refrigerator, separate from the others. Medical problems such as severe diarrhea and high fevers struck half the community in February 1978. According to the New York Times,[9] copious amounts of drugs such as Thorazine, sodium pentathol, chloral hydrate, Demerol and Valium were administered to Jonestown residents. . .

Various forms of punishment were used against members considered to be serious disciplinary problems. Methods included imprisonment in a 6x4x3-foot plywood box and forcing children to spend a night at the bottom of a well, sometimes upside-down. Members who attempted to run away were drugged to the point of incapacitation. Armed guards patrolled the compound day and night to enforce obedience to Jones.

Children, surrendered to communal care, addressed Jones as "Dad" and were only allowed to see their real parents briefly at night. Jones was called "Father" or "Dad" by the adults as well. . .

Local Guyanese, including a police official, related stories about harsh beatings and a "torture hole," a well into which Jones had "misbehaving" children thrown in the middle of the night. The mass suicides that would make Jonestown notorious were rehearsed during "white nights". In an affidavit, Peoples Temple defector Deborah Layton explains how these were rehearsed.

"Everyone, including the children, was told to line up. As we passed through the line, we were given a small glass of red liquid to drink. We were told that the liquid contained poison and that we would die within 45 minutes. We all did as we were told. When the time came when we should have dropped dead, Rev. Jones explained that the poison was not real and that we had just been through a loyalty test. He warned us that the time was not far off when it would become necessary for us to die by our own hands.". . .

There is a great deal unknown about what happened in Jonestown on the evening of November 18, 1978. . .

Jim Jones called a meeting under the pavilion in the early evening. Before the meeting, aides prepared a metal vat with grape Flavor Aid, poisoned with Valium, chloral hydrate, and presumably (though not certainly) cyanide. . .

The children were poisoned first. Aides took the children from their parents and brought them to stand in line. Some parents apparently went with their children. Poison was squirted into children's mouths with plastic syringes. Eyewitness Stanley Clayton, who was assisting already-poisoned children, reports that many children resisted and were physically forced to swallow by guards and nurses.
According to Clayton, the poison was extremely effective, causing death within about five minutes. . .

President Bill Clinton signed a bill into law in the 1990s, mandating the expiration of secrecy in documents after 25 years. It has been nearly 30 years since the mysterious mass deaths in Jonestown. The majority of Jonestown documents remain classified, despite Freedom of Information requests from numerous people over the past three decades



JOHN MCCASLIN, WASHINGTON TIMES - As a San Francisco Examiner religion reporter more than 30 years ago, veteran White House correspondent Lester Kinsolving sensed something sinister about Jim Jones and his Peoples Temple - long before the sect leader, 912 of his followers and a U.S. congressman perished in the jungle of Guyana. "I went to the religion editors of 40 newspapers - including The Washington Post, the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times - begging them to send reporters" to the temple's California headquarters during the early 1970s, he says.

On numerous occasions, the reporter was told and even witnessed for himself bizarre behavior by Jones, his armed guards and the temple's congregation. "Not one of them sent anybody," Mr. Kinsolving tells Inside the Beltway. "They refused."

Besides newspaper editors, the sect leader was fooling most everybody in those days, from San Francisco's mayor to the future vice president and even the first lady of the United States. "We had exposed this [sect activity] in 1973," Mr. Kinsolving recalls. "Then, wouldn't you know? Rosalynn Carter invited Jones to have dinner with her [at a California hotel]. She had a whole bunch of Secret Service agents with her, and when Jones showed up with his 'gunslingers' they still managed to work it out. "And can you believe Walter 'Fritz' Mondale entertained Jones on his campaign plane?"

Not everybody was so enchanted. Armed with Examiner newspaper articles questioning the activities of the temple and its subsequent exodus to South America, Rep. Leo J. Ryan, California Democrat, traveled to Jonestown, Guyana, to investigate. Before he could report back to Capitol Hill, the congressman was slain by Jones' followers on Nov. 18, 1978 - hours before the mass suicide.

"I remember when the news hit Washington that more than 900 people died ... and all the major media began acting as if it was something new," Mr. Kinsolving says. "Any way you look at this, it was such a terrible refusal of the major media not to tell the whole truth. "There was only one person that I had gone to [in the early 1970s] who later apologized for not looking into it further - Brit Hume. He worked for [syndicated columnist] Jack Anderson then."

JIM JONES WAS described by the future mayor of San Francisco, William Brown, "as regarded among government officials, civic and religious leaders, and particularly the black community and working class people, with utter respect..."

BRASSCHECK: For the first time ever and seemingly out of the blue, nearly 25 years after the fact, a senior member of the [San Francisco] Chronicle "family" has just published a limited admission that, indeed, the Chronicle did not do its job when it failed to report on the Jim Jones' criminal enterprise which operated in broad daylight in San Francisco in the 1970s. [Here is the] statement of support Jones received from a leading member of the family that owned the Chronicle during the heyday of Jones' "church" in San Francisco:

"Called less formally PT, the church is best known and highly regarded for its social works, which include housing and feeding senior citizens and medical convalescents, maintaining a home for retarded boys, rehabilitating youthful drug users. . ." - Charles deYoung Thieriot, Publisher of the Chronicle

A few points about German's language:

"...nearly a thousand followers fled (to Guyana)" Not quite. Even the State Department, which conducted a pre-massacre investigation into Jonestown, raised the issue of the children. What were they doing there? Who did they belong to? Where were their parents? Where were their passports? Who cleared them to leave the US? The children didn't "flee" San Francisco. They were abducted. Many were put in the hands of Jones' organization by the State of California. (Church records were ordered removed from the People's Temple within days after the massacre by then Governor and Jim Jones fan Jerry Brown. They have never been seen since.)

Finally, as a court in Guyana determined, there were only three suicides in Jonestown. The rest were victims of "murder most foul." The death by Kool-Aid story is largely a myth, one that, like so many improbable stories, did its job with the help of a compliant news media.

WILLIAM GERMAN, SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE: We learned our lesson nearly 25 years ago: Never shrug off a big story. We did, we got burned badly, and we may never forget. The story that got away was the one that lifted the lid on the Rev. Jim Jones and Peoples Temple. The Chronicle could have published the evidence that brought Jones to final judgment. Instead, it was handed to a nearby magazine. Over the years, bits and pieces of the shameful details have oozed out, but that hardly dilutes the pain. Flashback to early 1977, sixth year of the Jones church's move to San Francisco. Rev. Jones' public image was at its height as "a dedicated champion of the underprivileged." The city's political establishment held him in highest regard. Mayor George Moscone made him chairman of the Housing Authority. Herb Caen checked leaders of the Temple neighborhood and was told, "Jim Jones is a terrific guy, a man the ghetto people can believe in." Influential politician Willie Brown said, "San Francisco should have 10 more Jim Joneses." The press sometimes mentioned dissension in the church, but most stories told of good deeds by Jones. Some dissidents took their complaints to City Hall, where they got little official attention. They did, however, catch the eye of Chronicle City Hall reporter Marshall Kilduff. Kilduff went to his supervisor with a proposal to investigate the complaints. The supervisor -- long since departed -- turned Kilduff down. Everything that needed to be written about Jones had already been written, he said. Kilduff, a journalist who even now doesn't give up easily, asked for and received permission to take his idea to New West magazine, as long as he worked on his own time . . . The New West revelations stirred up a few others and the case against Jones was clear -- fraud, sexual misconduct, medical fakery and general megalomania. Rather than face his accusers, Jones and nearly a thousand followers fled to the suicidal horror of Jonestown, Guyana. . .


CALIFORNIA STATE ASSEMBLYMAN & LATER MAYOR WILLIE BROWN - I have had the great pleasure of knowing a leader with tremendous character and integrity. . . Rev. Jones is regarded among government officials, civic and religious leaders, and particularly the black community and working class people, with utter respect for what he has done to upgrade the quality of life in our area and to bring greater health and well-being to thousands of poor, minority, and disadvantaged people." -- September 1976 testimonial dinner honoring Jim Jones.


The war against the Phillipines

1906 To charges of brutality in the Phillipine war, Secreatary of War Elihu Root responds, "The war in the Phillipines has been conducted by the American Army with scrupulous regard for the rules of civilized warfare...with self-restraint & with humanity never surpassed." According to a contemporary account, "The major [accused of killing 11 defenseless Filipinos] said that General Smith instructed him to kill & burn, & said that the more he killed & burned the better pleased he would be; that it was no time to take prisoners, & that he was to make Samar a howling wilderness. Major Waller asked General Smith to define the age limit for killing, & he replied "Everything over ten." Mark Twain's description: "We have pacified some thousands of the islanders & buried them; destroyed their fields; burned their villages, & turned their widows & orphans out-of-doors; furnished heartbreak by exile to some dozens of disagreeable patriots; subjugated the remaining ten millions by Benevolent Assimilation, which is the pious new name of the musket; we have acquired property in the three hundred concubines & other slaves of our business partner Sultan of Sulu, & hoisted our protecting flag over that swag & so, by the Providences of God -- & the phrase is the government's, not mine -- we are a World Power."

1969 TIME MAGAZINE: The brief action at My Lai, a hamlet in Viet Cong-infested territory 335 miles northeast of Saigon, may yet have an impact on the war. According to accounts that suddenly appeared on TV and in the world press last week, a cam-company of 60 or 70 US infantrymen had entered My Lai early one morning and destroyed its houses, its livestock and all the inhabitants that they could find in a brutal operation that took less than 20 minutes. When it was over, the Vietnamese dead totaled at least 100 men, women and children, and perhaps many more. Only 25 or so escaped, because they lay hidden under the fallen bodies of relatives and neighbors . . . Few were spared. Stragglers were shot down as they fled from their burning huts. One soldier fired his M-79 grenade launcher into a clump of bodies in which some Vietnamese were still alive. One chilling incident was observed by Ronald L. Haeberle, 28, the Army combat photographer who had been assigned to C Company. He saw "two small children, maybe four or five years old. A guy with an M-16 fired at the first boy, and the older boy fell over to protect the smaller one. Then they fired six more shots. It was done very businesslike." HISTORY NET o ROTTEN HISTORY o WRITER'S ALMANAC o DAILY BLEED


[From a 1955 CIA document reviewing the agency's research and development of mind-altering substances and methods]

DRAFT [deleted]
5 May 1955

A portion of the Research and Development Program of TSS/Chemical Division is devoted to the discovery of the following materials and methods:

1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.

2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.

3. Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.

4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.

5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.

6. Materials which will render the indication of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.

7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brainwashing".

8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.

9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.

10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.

11. Substances which will produce "pure" euphoria with no subsequent let-down.

12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.

13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.

14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.

15. Substances which will promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.

16. A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.

17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a man to perform any physical activity whatever.

The development of materials of this type follows the standard practice of such ethical drug houses as [deleted]. It is a relatively routine procedure to develop a drug to the point of human testing. Ordinarily, the drug houses depend upon the services of private physicians for the final clinical testing. The physicians are willing to assume the responsibility of such tests in order to advance the science of medicine. It is difficult and sometimes impossible for TSS/CD to offer such an inducement with respect to its products. In practice, it has been possible to use the outside cleared contractors for the preliminary phases of this work. However, that part which involves human testing at effective dose levels presents security problems which cannot be handled by the ordinary contractor.

The proposed facility [deleted] offers a unique opportunity for the secure handling of such clinical testing in addition to the many advantages outline in the project proposal. The security problems mentioned above are eliminated by the fact that the responsibility for the testing will rest completely with the physician and the hospital. [deleted] will allow TSS/CD personnel to supervise the work very closely to make sure that all tests are conducted according to the recognized practices and embody adequate safeguards.


[The Ohio Committee on Corporations, Law and Democracy has prepared an excellent report on how corporations in that state gained the power to corrupt elections. The information, while focusing on Ohio, is useful to all concerned with this issue]

When Ohio was founded, corporations had no rights, only privileges, bestowed by the citizenry through their elected state legislators -- and backed up by the courts. Corrupt and corporate-friendly state officials and judges began granting corporations authorities never intended. Supreme Court decisions (including the Santa Clara decision) granted corporations "personhood" rights. By the end of the 19th century, corporations were at a crest of power -- politically, economically, culturally. So was public awareness of the abuses of the "robber barons" and the giant corporations that formed monopolies and trusts across the land.

Public pressure forced Ohio and other states to pass tough laws outlawing monopolies and also prompted passage of the Sherman (named after US Senator John Sherman from Ohio) Anti-Trust Act of 1890. Populists in the south and west organized to fundamentally challenge the nature of corporations to control economies and communities.

Still other public reaction was in response to the political power of corporations expressed through direct political contributions to candidates. Ohioan Marc Hanna, who ran the Presidential campaign of Canton-native William McKinley in the 1896 election, introduced the practice of regularly assessing corporations for campaign contributions to the Republican Party, with each company paying according to its "stake in the general prosperity."

"There are two things important in politics," Hanna once said, "the first is money and I can't remember what the second one is."

In 1896 Ohio General Assembly passed a law placing limits on the amount of money candidates could "pay out, give, contribute or spend" on their campaigns with the intent to "prevent corrupt practices at elections."

In 1907 the Teddy Roosevelt administration pushed through legislation outlawing direct corporate contributions on federal level.

In 1908 the General Assembly enacted legislation "to prevent the corruption of elections and political parties by corporations" by barring any corporation from directly or indirectly giving money or property to any political organization, party or candidate.

In 1911 the General Assembly required that every corporation or public utility which makes any report, statement or return to the state submit an affidavit stating that it did engage in any political activity, either directly or indirectly, during the preceding year. [102, Ohio Laws, 224]

The legislature weakened Ohio's tough campaign contributions law in the 1950's by allowing corporate contributions for the first time in non-partisan elections such as ballot issues.

The Cuyahoga County Court of Appeals ruled in 1958 that corporate contributions to ballot issues is equal to contributing to candidates, and thus illegal. The judges argued in part that, "Corporations do not vote. They exist for the purpose of furthering the particular business in which they are engaged." The next year, the Ohio Supreme Court struck down the Cuyahoga County ruling, permitting corporations to contribute for the first time to ballot measures.

The US Supreme Court struck a major blow against Ohio and all other states' efforts to keep corporations out of politics in 1978 when its First National Bank of Boston decision granted corporations the same First Amendment rights of free speech as citizens, and, thus, cannot be prohibited from contributing to state referenda.

Corporate Political Action Committees (PACs) were legally established in Ohio in 1987 "to establish, administer, and solicit contributions from... [their] stockholders, officers, directors and trustees that are not corporations or employees." This concentrated political contributions and clearly linked them to specific corporations.

[From Democracy for Sale, available from the Ohio Committee on Corporations, Law and Democracy by calling 330-253-7151 or writing 513 W. Exchange St., Akron, OH, 44302]


THE PROGRESSIVE REVIEW, JANUARY 2000: TPR recently quoted from a column by Dick Case of the Syracuse Herald American which revealed that the practice of redlining mortgage loans for American cities began in the Roosevelt administration, far earlier than is generally realized. A former Syracuse city planner, Emanual Carter, who had come across the practice while reading "A Prayer for the City" by Buzz Bissinger, told Case, "I think this program almost guaranteed the demise of our cities."

Now, Jane Levey, editor of Washington History magazine, points out to us stunning corroboration contained in a lecture delivered 23 years ago to the Columbia Historical Society by historian Kenneth T. Jackson. Jackson, in his address to an organization that is now the Historical Society of Washington, outlined what was, in effect, a federally-organized program of urban residential apartheid.

One of the New Deal's reforms had been the creation of the Home Owners Loan Corporation, which provided federal guarantees for home mortgages. Jackson reported that between 1933 and 1936 alone, the HOLC supplied funds for one tenth of all owner-occupied, non-farm residences in the country. The FHA, and later the VA, took over the task.

There was a huge need. Before the FHA and VA, first mortgages usually covered no more than one-half to two-thirds of the appraised value and the term was typically only between five and ten years. By the end of 1958, the FHA had enabled nearly five million families to own homes and helped more than 22 million to improve their properties.

At the same time, however, the legislation discouraged the construction of multi-family units and provided only small short-term loans for repair of existing homes. This meant, Jackson noted, that "families of modest circumstances could more easily finance the purchase of a new home than the modernization of an old one."

While such restrictions are well known, other aspects of the program have been long hidden, such as the FHA weighting system by which underwriters would judge a neighborhood by such standards as "protection from adverse influences," "freedom from special hazards," and "appeal." The FHA Underwriting Manual warned that "older properties in a neighborhood have a tendency to accelerate the rate of transition to lower class occupancy" and suggested that apartment owners should look to the suburbs, preferably a site "set in what amounts to a privately owned and privately controlled park area."

Jackson continued:

"The greatest fears of the Federal Housing Administration were reserved for 'unharmonious racial or nationality groups.' The alleged danger was that an entire area could lose its investment value if rigid white-black segregation was not maintained. To protect itself against such eventualities, the Underwriting Manual openly recommended 'enforced zoning, subdivision regulations, and suitable restrictive covenants. In addition, the FHA's Division of Economics and Statistics compiled detailed reports and maps charting the present and most likely future residential locations of black families." In a March, 1939, map of Brooklyn, for example, the presence of a single non-white family on any block was sufficient to result in that entire block being marked black. Similarly, very extensive maps of the District of Columbia depicted the spread of the black population and the percentage of dwelling units occupied by persons other than white."

Beginning in 1936, an inventory was created, largely by those in the real estate industry, and color coded maps were drawn with neighborhoods rated A through D.Case described the system:

"* Grade A neighborhood: Up and coming. In demand. Well planned. Color it green.

"* Grade B: Completely developed. Still good but not what people who can afford more are buying. Blue.

"* Grade C: Buildings aged and obsolete. "Infiltration of lower grade populations." Experts say "lower grade',' citizens were blacks (called 'Negroes' by surveyors), Jews and foreign born whites. C neighborhoods 'lack homogeneity.' Color them yellow.

"* Grade D: Detrimental influences. Undesirable population. Mostly rented homes with poor maintenance, vandalism, unstable families. This is the red area."

Jackson noted that "black neighborhoods were invariably rated 'D.'" These were neighborhoods described with such phrases as "the only hope is for demolition of these buildings and transition of the are into a business district" or "this particular spot is a blight on the surrounding area."

Secret "residential security maps" were drawn up for every block of a city. These maps were available to lenders and realtors but were kept secret from the general public. Some of these maps, including those for DC, Jackson found to be missing from government archives.

The suburban bias of the FHA was extraordinary. For example, 91% of the homes insured by the agency in metropolitan St. Louis between 1935 and 1939 were in the suburbs. This practice would continue into the 60s and even the 70s. Jackson found that in 1976 the federal government had supplied three dollars in loans for suburban St. Louis for every one dollar to the city itself. Between 1934 and 1960, $559 million was loaned for suburban construction in the St. Louis suburbs but only $94 million for the city itself, a suburban per capita loan in 1961 of $794 vs. an urban one of only $126.

While the housing programs of the Roosevelt and Truman administrations helped to create America's huge middle class, it also secretly created extraordinary victims, primarily black citizens and the American city. As Jane Jacobs would put it, "Credit blacklisting maps are accurate prophecies because they are self-fulfilling prophecies."


JIM GREEN, ENS: The British government has admitted that British, Australian and New Zealand military personnel were used in radiation experiments during the nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga in South Australia in the 1950s, but claims that clothing was being tested, not humans . . . A statement released by the British government said that military personnel were "transported to or walked in various uniforms to an area of low-level fallout." The admission followed publicity surrounding a document found in the Australian National Archive in February by Sue Rabbitt Roff, a senior research fellow from Scotland's Dundee University. The October 12, 1956, document on an "Australian Military Forces - Central Command" letterhead refers to the Buffalo series of four atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at Maralinga in September and October, 1956. The document names 70 Australian military personnel and one civilian, plus five New Zealand officers, all listed as exposed to radiation following a September 27 nuclear test. "As far as can be determined the individual dose for round one was received over a period of two to three hours while the various indoctrinee groups were touring the target response area . . . Certain people were exposed to radiation on dates other than 28 and 29 Sep, during clothing trials or for a limited number during a tour of the contaminated area after round two," the document says.MORE


BRASS CHECK: In 1962, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff seriously considered using plastic explosives to carry out terrorist attacks on US buildings and then manufacture evidence that would place blame on agents of the Cuban government in order to justify a military invasion of that country:


"We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban refugees in the United States even to the extent of wounding in instances to be widely publicized. Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of prepared documents substantiating Cuban involvement, also would be helpful in projecting the idea of an irresponsible government." - March 14, 1962 PDF VERSION